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Inferential programming

Encyclopedia results for Inferential programming

  1. Inferential programming

    Unreferenced date December 2009 In ordinary computer programming, the programmer keeps the program s intended results in mind and painstakingly constructs a computer program to achieve those results. Inferential programming refers to still mostly hypothetical techniques and technologies enabling the inverse. Inferential programming would allow the programmer to describe the intended result to the computer using a metaphor such as a fitness function , a test specification, or a logical specification and then the computer would construct its own program to meet the supplied criteria. During the 1980s, approaches to achieve inferential programming mostly revolved around techniques for logical inference . Today the term is sometimes used in connection with evolutionary computation techniques that enable the computer to evolve a solution in response to a problem posed as a fitness or reward function. Closely related concepts and technologies PROLOG Artificial intelligence Genetic programming Machine learning Artificial life Evolution Metaprogramming See also Computer science Compiler theory Unit testing DEFAULTSORT Inferential Programming Category Programming paradigms Category Hypothetical technology ...   more details

  1. Inferential

    wiktionary Inferential may refer to Inferential mood grammar Inference logic disamb Short pages monitor This long comment was added to the page to prevent it from being listed on Special Shortpages. It and the accompanying monitoring template were generated via Template Long comment. Please do not remove the monitor template without removing the comment as well. ...   more details

  1. Inferential Focus

    Inferential Focus, Inc. is a New York City based consultancy offering corporate, institutional investor , private equity , and government clients business intelligence and change detection services using a process known as Inference Reading. Charles Hess is the President and one of the co founders of the firm. The firm could be considered a think tank , and in the 1980s was frequently referred to as The CEO s CIA , a reference to the firm s role in gathering intelligence for corporate and investor decision makers. The firm s intelligence gathering techniques rely heavily on research into the two hemisphere s of the brain conducted by Nobel Prize winner Roger Sperry . The firm s application of its intelligence into the decision making processes of its clients utilizes the decision making model of Nobel Prize winner Herbert Simon . History and books Inferential Focus was founded in 1980 by business partners Charles Hess and Bennett W. Goodspeed, Sr. Goodspeed, who died in 1983 was best known for his investing treatise The Tao Jones Averages , which was a guide to whole brained investing, as contrasted to the number based analytical left brained investing that remains mainstream. They were joined by Joseph W. Kelly Jr. Other principals during the companies earlier years included Carol Coleman, a securities analyst, and Kenneth Hey, a Ph.D. in American Studies who was also a film producer, and Peter Moore, the firm s marketing specialist. Hey remains the head writer of the firm s primary intelligence publication, the Inferential Focus Briefing . Hey and Moore authored The Caterpillar ... Inferential Focus main business is to deliver intelligence and change detection to its clients, and to identify ... called Inference Reading. This process is analogous to the medical practice doctors are trained with Inferential ... taking place in politics, the economy, society, technology, and culture. Inferential Focus managing ... firms in Hartford, Ct. and by the Williams Inference Service. References Inferential Focus links little ...   more details

  1. Inferential mood

    The inferential mood list of glossing abbreviations abbreviated sc infer or sc infr is used to report a nonwitnessed event without confirming it, but the same forms also function as admirative s in the Balkan languages in which they occur. The inferential mood is used in some languages such as Turkish language Turkish to convey information about events, which were not directly observed or were inferred by the speaker. When referring to Bulgarian language Bulgarian and other Balkan languages, it is often called renarrative mood when referring to Estonian language Estonian , it is called oblique mood . The inferential is usually impossible to be distinguishably translated into English. For instance, indicative Bulgarian toy otide and Turkish o gitti will be translated the same as inferential toy otishal and o gitmi with the English indicative he went . ref For a more precise rendering, it would be possible to also translate these as he reportedly went or he is said to have gone or even apparently, he went although, clearly, these long constructions would be impractical in an entire text composed in this tense. ref Using the first pair, however, implies very strongly that the speaker either witnessed the event or is very sure that it took place. The second pair implies either that the speaker did not in fact witness it take place, that it occurred in the remote past or that there is considerable doubt as to whether it actually happened. If it were necessary to make the distinction, then the English constructions he must have gone or he is said to have gone would partly translate the inferential. Renarrative in the Balkan languages Writing on the typology of evidentiality in Balkan languages, Victor Friedman systematizes the facts in the following way ref ... sometimes called reported , inferential , and or nonwitnessed . The nonconfirmatives can, in Austin ... are preferred. References Reflist See also Balkan sprachbund Grammatical moods DEFAULTSORT Inferential ...   more details

  1. Inferential role semantics

    Inferential role semantics also conceptual role semantics, functional role semantics, procedural semantics is an approach to the theory of meaning that identifies the meaning of an expression with its relationship to other expressions, typically its inferential relations with other expressions. Proponents include Robert Brandom , ref http pragmatism inferentialism.pdf Pragmatism and Inferentialism ref ref cite book last Brandom first Robert title Articulating Reasons An Introduction to Inferentialism publisher Harvard University Press year 2000 pages 230 isbn 0 674 00158 3 ref Gilbert Harman , ref http gsas dept philo courses concepts NonSolips.html Nonsolipsistic Conceptual Role Semantics by Gilbert Harman ref Paul Horwich , and Ned Block . ref http gsas dept philo faculty block papers ConceptualRoleSemantics.html Conceptual Role Semantics by Ned Block ref Inferential role semantics originated in the later work of Ludwig Wittgenstein . Inferential role semantics is sometimes contrasted to truth conditional semantics . Jerry Fodor coined the term inferential role semantics in order to criticise it as a holistic i.e. essentially non compositional approach to the theory of meaning. The approach is related to accounts of proof theoretic semantics in the Formal semantics logic semantics of logic which associate meaning with the reasoning process. References reflist DEFAULTSORT Inferential Role Semantics Category Theories of deduction Category Theories of language Category Semantics Category Philosophy of language Ling stub de Inferentielle Semantik ...   more details

  1. Simple non-inferential passage

    A simple non inferential passage is a type of nonargument characterized by the lack of a claim that anything is being proved. ref name Conciselogic cite book title A Concise Introduction to Logic 10th ed. publisher Thompson Wadsworth author Hurley, Patrick J. year 2008 pages 16 isbn 0 495 50383 5 ref Simple non inferential passages include warnings, pieces of advice, statements of belief or opinion, loosely associated statements , and reports. Simple non inferential passages are nonarguments because while the statements involved may be premises, conclusions or both, the statements do not serve to infer a conclusion or support one another. This is distinct from a logical fallacy , which indicates an error in reasoning. Types Warnings A warning is a type of simple non inferential passage that serves to alert a person to any sort of potential danger. This can be as simple as a road sign indicating falling rock or a janitorial sign indicating a wet, slippery floor. Piece of advice A piece of advice is a type of simple non inferential passage that recommends some future action or course of conduct. A mechanic recommending regular oil changes or a doctor recommending that a patient refrain from smoking are examples of pieces of advice. Statements of belief or opinion main Opinion A statement of belief or opinion is a type of simple non inferential passage containing an expression of belief or opinion lacking an inferential claim. In A concise introduction to logic , Hurley uses the following example to illustrate quote We believe that our company must develop and produce outstanding products that will perform a great servcie or fulfill a need for our customers. We believe that our business must be run at an adequate profit and that the services and products we offer must be better ... non inferential passage wherein statements about a general subject are juxtaposed but make no inferential ... April 28, 2012 ref Reports A report is a type of simple non inferential passage wherein the statements ...   more details

  1. Inferential theory of learning

    Orphan date December 2011 Inferential theory of learning ITL is an area of machine learning which describes inferential processes performed by learning agents. ITL has been developed by Ryszard S. Michalski in 1980s. In ITL Learning learning process is viewed as a search inference through hypotheses space guided by a specific goal. Results of learning need to be Data storage device stored , in order to be used in the future. References unreferenced date November 2011 Reflist Further reading Refbegin Ryszard S. Michalski, Jaime G. Carbonell, Tom M. Mitchell 1983 , Machine Learning An Artificial Intelligence Approach , Tioga Publishing Company, ISBN 0 935382 05 4. Ryszard S. Michalski, Jaime G. Carbonell, Tom M. Mitchell 1986 , Machine Learning An Artificial Intelligence Approach, Volume II , Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN 0 934613 00 1. Yves Kodratoff, Ryszard S. Michalski 1990 , Machine Learning An Artificial Intelligence Approach, Volume III , Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN 1 55860 119 8. Ryszard S. Michalski, George Tecuci 1994 , Machine Learning A Multistrategy Approach , Volume IV, Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN 1 55860 251 8. Refend Category Cybernetics Category Learning Category Learning in computer vision Category Machine learning Compu AI stub Systemstheory stub ...   more details

  1. Basic programming

    Basic programming may refer to Premium television Basic programming Basic television programming , the set of channels included in basic subscription to satellite or cable television Programming in one of the BASIC programming languages BASIC Programming , cartridge for the Atari 2600 console, released in 1979 disambig ...   more details

  1. Network programming

    Network programming may refer to one of several things Computer network programming Scheduling broadcasting Scheduling broadcast programs disambig ...   more details

  1. Scalar programming

    Unreferenced stub auto yes date December 2009 Disputeabout anyone ever having proposed scalar programming date March 2008 Programming paradigms Scalar programming is a term used to refer to those programming approaches that do not follow the array programming programming paradigm paradigm . The fundamental idea behind scalar programming is that operations apply to a single value at a time. This makes it a low level programming model as it restricts the programmer to think and operate on the elemental constituents of data aggregates, and resorting to explicit loops of individual scalar operations to process the whole aggregates. See also Array programming contrast Programming paradigm s DEFAULTSORT Scalar Programming Category Programming paradigms Comp sci stub ...   more details

  1. Exploratory programming

    Unreferenced date January 2007 Exploratory programming is an important part of the software engineering cycle when a domain is not very well understood or open ended, or it s not clear what algorithms and data structures might be needed for an implementation, it s useful to be able to interactively develop and debug a program without having to go through the usual constraints of the edit compile run debug cycle. Many languages provide support for exploratory programming via interactivity, dynamicity, and extensibility, such as Cecil programming language Cecil , Dylan programming language Dylan , Factor programming language Factor , Lisp programming language Lisp , Mathematica , Obliq , Oz programming language Oz , Prolog , Python programming language Python , REBOL , Ruby programming language Ruby , Self programming language Self , Smalltalk and Tcl . See also Software Prototyping DEFAULTSORT Exploratory Programming Category Programming paradigms Soft eng stub ...   more details

  1. Programming (disambiguation)

    Programming often refers to computer programming , the act of instructing computers to perform tasks. In other contexts, it may also refer to Broadcast programming , scheduling content for television Radio programming , scheduling content for radio Programming music , generating music electronically Psychological programming , the use of hypnosis, illusion, mind control and brainwashing to program a mind Mathematical programming , or optimization disambig af Programmering ca Programaci de Programming fr Programmation homonymie ko it Programmazione nl Programmeren ja ru vi L p tr nh nh h ng ...   more details

  1. Synthetic programming

    Distinguish Synthetic Programming HP 41 Multiple issues context March 2009 notability March 2009 refimprove March 2009 orphan February 2010 Synthetic programming refers to assembly language programming in scripting language s. Implementations vary from Inline assembler inline assembly to better wrapped machine instructions. Implementations Python programming language Python Corepy http AutoHotkey http forum topic21172.html AutoIt http forum index.php?showtopic 86672 Category Computer programming Compu prog stub ...   more details

  1. Subject (programming)

    Expert subject Computer science date November 2008 In computer programming within the subject oriented programming Programming paradigm paradigm , subjects are a way to separation of concerns separate concern s. For example, in a Shape class with two methods Draw and Move , each method would be considered a subject. External links http sop IBM Subject oriented programming page http tech hyperj Hyper J is an example of this concept. Compu lang stub Category Object oriented programming Category Programming paradigms Category Programming principles ...   more details

  1. Typeful programming

    In computer science , typeful programming is a programming style identified by widespread use of type theory type information handled through mechanical typechecking techniques. ref name Cardelli The concept was introduced in a paper of the same name by Luca Cardelli in 1991. ref name Cardelli The Haskell programming language Haskell programming language is said to be typeful. ref name Cardelli cite journal last Cardelli first Luca year 1991 title Typeful programming journal IFIP State of the Art Reports publisher Springer Verlag location New York issue Formal Description of Programming Concepts pages 431 507 url http Papers TypefulProg.pdf ref References references Category Programming paradigms Category Type theory compu prog stub ...   more details

  1. Programming game

    A programming game is a computer game where the player has no direct influence on the course of the game. Instead, a computer program or script is written in some domain specific programming language in order to control the actions of the characters usually robot s, tank s or bacteria , which seek to destroy each other . Most programming games can be considered environments of digital organism s, related to artificial life simulations. A few programming games of note include AI Wars , Core War , and RoboWar , among many others. There are different tournament s and leagues for the programming games where the characters can compete with each other. Usually a script is optimized for a special strategy. Programming games may be derived from almost any other type of game. For example, the World Computer Chess Championship consists of matches between programs written for the abstract strategy game of chess . Also, some non computer games borrow elements of programming games in the board game RoboRally , players arrange cards to program their pieces with a sequence of moves, causing moves to be made without the knowledge of one s opponents preceding moves. See also Portal box Robotics Video games Category Programming games Programming games category List of digital organism simulators External links http The Programming Games Wiki http Games Video Games Simulation Programming Games Programming Game list at DMOZ http game links.htm Many inactive and nonexistent programming games at AIforge http 2009 09 history of programming games 1961 1989.html A History of Programming Games http projects earliestgames Earliest and Similar Games now in C, Turn Based, or Color and Speed in Linux Ncurses VideoGameGenre videogame software stub Category Programming games Category Video game genres de Programmierspiel ru uk ...   more details

  1. Strip programming

    Unreferenced auto yes date December 2009 Strip programming is a technique used for programming television and radio to ensure consistency and coherency. Television program Television or radio program s of a particular style are given a regular time slot during the week. For example, radio and television Broadcasting broadcasters may program a european classical music classical music program at 1 p.m. every day. Strip programming is used to deliver consistent content to targeted audiences. Broadcasters know or predict the times at which certain demographics will be listening to or watching their programs and play them at that time. Drive time and prime time programming is a classic example of strip programming, with similar content being broadcast every day at the same time to target specific demographics. Strip programming is sometimes criticized as making programming too predictable and reducing diversity and uniqueness. DEFAULTSORT Strip Programming Category Television terminology Category Radio terminology tv term stub nl Horizontale programmering ...   more details

  1. The Practice of Programming

    nofootnotes date October 2008 The Practice of Programming ISBN 0 201 61586 X by Brian W. Kernighan and Rob Pike is a 1999 book about computer programming and software engineering , published by Addison Wesley . According to the preface, the book is about topics like testing, debugging , porting portability , performance, design alternatives, and style, which, according to the authors, are not usually the focus of computer science or programming courses . ref http cm.bell cm cs tpop preface.html Preface ref It treats these topics in case studies, featuring implementations in several programming language s mostly C programming language C , but also C , AWK programming language AWK , Perl and Tcl . The Practice of Programming has been translated into twelve languages. References reflist External links http cm.bell cm cs tpop Bell Labs homepage http Website for the book compu book stub Rob Pike navbox DEFAULTSORT Practice of Programming Category Software engineering books Category 1999 books ...   more details

  1. Programming in the large and programming in the small

    Refimprove date February 2010 Programming paradigms In software development , programming in the large and programming in the small describe two different approaches to writing software. The terms were coined by Frank DeRemer and Hans Kron in their 1975 paper Programming in the large versus programming ... an individual program is created is different from how a programming systems product is created. ref ... engineer, is complete in itself, and is ready to run on the system on which it was developed. The programming .... This is the endeavor that DeRemer and Kron describe as programming in the small. Compare with the activities associated with a programming systems project, again as identified by Brooks. Such a project ... how programming systems projects are typically run as formal projects that follow industry best ... about programming in the large vs in the small taken from the abstract of their paper see the references ... , possibly written by different people. We need languages for programming in the small, i.e. languages not unlike the common programming languages of today, for writing modules. We also need a module ... machines. Programming in the large In software development , programming in the large can involve computer programming programming by larger groups of people or by smaller groups over longer time periods ... complicated, programs that can be challenging for maintainers to understand. With programming in the large, coding managers place emphasis on partitioning work into Modularity programming module .... With programming in the large, program changes can become difficult. ref name Brooks If a change ... goal of programming in the large involves setting up modules that will not need altering in the event ... cohesion and loose Coupling computer science coupling . Programming in the large requires abstraction ... define interactions that have precision and demonstrable correctness. Programming in the large ... by Frank DeRemer and Hans Kron in their 1976 paper Programming in the Large Versus Programming ...   more details

  1. The Tao of Programming

    Refimprove date August 2008 Infobox book name The Tao of Programming image http taocover.jpg Cover page author Geoffrey James writer Geoffrey James illustrator Gloria Garland cover artist Gloria Garland country United States language English language English subject Computer programming genre Computer programming , Satire publisher InfoBooks pub date 1987 media type Print Paperback pages 151 isbn 0 931137 07 1 dewey 005 19 congress QA76.6 .J354 1987 oclc 13904639 followed by The Zen of Programming The Tao of Programming is a book written in 1987 by Geoffrey James . Written in a tongue in cheek style spoof of classic Taoist texts such as the Tao Te Ching and Zhuangzi which belies its serious message. The Tao of Programming consists of a series of short anecdotes divided into nine books The Silent Void The Ancient Masters Design Coding Maintenance Management Corporate Wisdom Hardware and Software Epilogue The themes of the book espouse many Hacker programmer subculture hacker ideals &ndash managers should leave programmers to their work code should be small, elegant, and maintainable corporate wisdom is more often than not an oxymoron and so on. Geoffrey James wrote two more books like The Tao of Programming The Zen of Programming in 1988 and Computer Parables Enlightenment in the Information Age in 1989. However, they have not been as well received. Citation ... version of The Tao of Programming http tao tao of programming.html An online version of The Tao of Programming http esr writings unix koans The Unix Koans of Master ... http tao of programming.htm A Chinese translation of The Tao of Programming http hvaonline posts list 22570.hva A Vietnamese translation of The Tao of Programming DEFAULTSORT Tao Of Programming, The Category Software development books Category 1987 books Category ... of Programming ...   more details

  1. Slow programming

    Orphan date February 2009 The slow programming movement is part of the slow movement . It is a software development philosophy that emphasises careful design, quality code, software testing and thinking. It strives to avoid kludge s, buggy code, and overly quick release cycles. External links http slow programming a new approach to software development Slow Programming A new approach to software development http cernuda noprog ENG.html How NOT to go about a programming assignment An ironic description of a fast programming paradigm http 21 days.html Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years An essay on developing expertise in programming, by Peter Norvig http bliki TechnicalDebt.html Technical Debt Technical Debt, by Martin Fowler http portal web buildyourcareer Nosce te Ipsum blogs top ten idea killers in software development Top Ten Idea Killers in Software Development Top Ten Idea Killers in Software Development, by Navneeth Mandavilli Category Slow movement Category Software development philosophies compu prog stub ...   more details

  1. Tacit programming

    Programming paradigms Tacit programming is a programming paradigm in which a function definition does not include information regarding its parameter computer science arguments , using combinator library combinators and function composition computer science function composition but not abstraction instead of variable programming variables . The simplicity behind this idea allows its use on several programming language s, such as APL programming language APL and J programming language J and especially in stack oriented programming language stack or concatenative programming language concatenative languages, such as PostScript , Forth programming language Forth , Joy programming language Joy , and Factor programming language Factor . Outside of the APL and J communities, tacit programming is referred to as point free style , ref cite web url http haskellwiki Pointfree title Pointfree publisher HaskellWiki accessdate 2008 05 09 ref or more pithily as pointless programming , because of the lack of explicit arguments, or points . The key idea in tacit programming is to assist in operating at the appropriate level of abstraction. That is, to translate the natural transformation ... programming A simple example in Haskell programming language Haskell is a program which takes a sum of a list. A programmer might define a sum recursively using a pointed cf. value level programming value level programming method as source lang haskell sum x xs x sum xs sum 0 source However by noting ... haskell mf . map . . . filter source APL family In J programming language J , the same sort of point ... In stack oriented programming language s and concatenative programming language concatenative ones , most ... sub fib add if def See also Combinatory logic Concatenative programming language Function level programming Joy programming language , modern highly tacit language References Reflist External links http ... tacit programming in any APL like language Category Programming paradigms es Programaci n t cita ru ...   more details

  1. Programming paradigm

    refimprove date February 2011 Expert subject Computer science date January 2009 Programming paradigms A programming paradigm is a fundamental style of computer programming . Compare with a methodology ..., evaluation, continuations, data flows, etc. . Overview A programming model is an abstraction ... passing, or a hybrid of the two. A programming language can support multi paradigm programming ... procedural programming procedural , or purely object oriented programming object oriented , or contain ... elements. In object oriented programming, programmers can think of a program as a collection of interacting objects, while in functional programming a program can be thought of as a sequence of stateless function evaluations. When programming computers or systems with many processors, process oriented programming allows programmers to think about applications as sets of concurrent processes acting ... different methodologies , different programming language s advocate different programming paradigms ... programming, Haskell programming language Haskell supports functional programming , while other programming languages support multiple paradigms such as Object Pascal , C , Java programming language Java , C Sharp programming language C , Visual Basic , Common Lisp , Scheme programming language Scheme , Perl , Python programming language Python , Ruby programming language Ruby , Oz programming language Oz and F Sharp programming language F . Many programming paradigms are as well known for what techniques they forbid as for what they enable. For instance, pure functional programming disallows the use of side effect computer science side effects , while structured programming disallows the use ... or simply to understand its behavior. Multi paradigm programming language see also List of multi paradigm programming languages A multi paradigm programming language is a programming language that supports more than one programming paradigm. As Leda programming language Leda designer Timothy Budd ...   more details

  1. Programming domain

    Notability date October 2011 A programming domain defines a specific kind of use for a programming language . Some examples of programming domains are Application software General purpose applications Rapid software prototyping Financial time series analysis Natural language processing Artificial intelligence reasoning Expert systems Relational database querying Theorem proving Systems design and implementation Application scripting Domain specific applications Programming education Internet Symbolic mathematics Numerical mathematics Statistical applications Text processing Matrix algorithms See also Domain specific language Unreferenced date June 2007 compu lang stub Category Programming language topics Domain Category Computer languages ...   more details

  1. Procedural programming

    About the computer programming paradigm the method of algorithmic content creation Procedural generation Refimprove date April 2008 Programming paradigms Procedural programming can sometimes be used as a synonym for imperative programming specifying the steps the program must take to reach the desired state , but can also refer as in this article to a programming paradigm , derived from structured programming , based upon the concept of the procedure call . Procedures, also known as routines, subroutine ... used in functional programming , simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out ... Welcome to IEEE Xplore 2.0 Use of procedural programming languages for controlling production systems ... main Modular programming modularity programming Modularity is generally desirable, especially in large ... programming variable s in the execution system platform environment , which other procedures might also ... groups, including through code library programming libraries . Comparison with imperative programming Procedural programming languages are also imperative programming imperative languages, because ... in the Logo programming language . Comparison with object oriented programming The focus of procedural programming is to break down a programming task into a collection of variable programming variables , data structure s, and subroutine s, whereas in object oriented programming it is to break down a programming task into data types class computer science classes that associate behavior methods with data members or attributes . The most important distinction is whereas procedural programming uses procedures to operate on data structures, object oriented programming bundles the two together ... call message See Algorithms Data Structures Programs . Comparison with functional programming The principles of modularity and code reuse in practical functional programming functional languages are fundamentally the same as in procedural languages, since they both stem from structured programming ...   more details

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