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Encyclopedia results for Biological organisation

Biological organisation

Encyclopedia results for Biological organisation

  1. Biological model

    A biological model may refer to a model organism a mathematical model of a biological system the Model of Abnormality The Biological .28Medical.29 Model biological medical model of abnormality disambig ...   more details

  1. Biological functionalism

    from gambling, biological functionalism maintains that the newly created ability of the gambler ... purpose. In this sense, biological functionalism maintains that while bad results often occur in life ... reflist DEFAULTSORT Biological Functionalism Category Anthropology Category Cognition Category ...   more details

  1. Biological specimen

    A Biological specimen also called a biospecimen is a Biology biological laboratory specimen held by a biorepository for research. Such a specimen would be taken by Sampling medicine sampling so as to be representative of any other specimen taken from the source of the specimen. When biological specimens are stored, ideally they remain equivalent to freshly collected specimens for the purposes of research. Human biological specimens are stored in a type of biorepository called a biobank , and the science of preserving biological specimens is most active in the field of biobanking. Quality control Setting broad standards for quality of biological specimens was initially a underdeveloped aspect of biobank growth. ref name foundation cite doi 10.1097 CCO.0b013e32834161b8 ref There is currently discussion on what standards should be in place and who should manage those standards. Since many organizations set their own standards and since biobanks are necessarily used by multiple organizations and typically are driven towards expansion, the harmonization of standard operating procedures for lab practices are a high priority. ref name foundation The procedures have to be evidence based and will change with time as new research and technology becomes available. ref name foundation Policy makers Some progress for the creation of policy making organizations include the National Cancer Institute s 2005 creation of the Office of Biobanking and Biospecimen Research OBBR ref name foundation and the annual Biospecimen Research Network Symposia. ref cite doi 10.1158 0008 5472.CAN 09 1795 ref The International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories , International Agency for Research on Cancer, Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development , and the Australasian Biospecimen ... techniques associated with biological specimen storage include phenol chloroform extraction , PCR ... biobank about biobanking.cfm Mayo Clinic on biobanking Category Biobanks Category Biological ...   more details

  1. Biological warfare

    For the use of biological agent s by terrorists bioterrorism Weapons of mass destruction Biological warfare also known as germ warfare is the use of Toxin Biotoxins biological toxins or pathogen infectious ..., animals or plants as an act of war. Biological weapons often termed bio weapons or bio agents are living .... Biological weapons may be employed in various ways to gain a strategy strategic or Tactic method tactical ... weapons , biological weapons may also be useful as area denial weapons . These agents may be lethal ... first Mark coauthors Lajos R zsa, Malcolm Dando title Deadly Cultures Biological Weapons Since ... between biological warfare and chemical warfare , as the use of toxin s produced by living organisms is considered under the provisions of both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical ... Warfare . Page 265 to 266 . Phoenix. ISBN 0304367346. ref Overview Offensive biological warfare, including mass production , stockpiling and use of biological weapons, was outlawed by the 1972 Biological ... Ratification ratified or acceded to by List of parties to the Biological Weapons Convention 163 countries as of 2009, is to prevent a biological attack which could conceivably result in large numbers ... nations or groups interact with it. Biological weapons allow for the potential to create a level ... to their mass and cost of development and storage. Therefore, biological agents may be useful as strategic ... stop an opposing force. Some biological agents especially smallpox , plague disease plague ... of virtually all nations. History main History of biological warfare div style clear both div history of war Rudimentary forms of biological warfare have been practiced repeatedly throughout ... Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World publisher ... in bacteriology brought a new level of sophistication to the theoretical use of bio agent s in war. Biological .... The 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention BWC extended the ban to almost all production, storage ...   more details

  1. Biological data

    Unreferenced stub auto yes date December 2009 Biological data are data or measurement s collected from biological sources, which are often stored or exchanged in a digital form. Biological data are commonly stored in files or databases. Examples of biological data are DNA sequence DNA base pair sequences , and population data used in ecology . See also Bioinformatics Biological database Biological model disambiguation Data modeling DNA sequencing Data mining DEFAULTSORT Biological Data Category Data Category Biology Biology stub ar ...   more details

  1. Biological determinism

    . Biological determination also biologism is the interpretation of humans and human life from a strictly biological point of view, and it is closely related to genetic determinism . Another definition is that biological determinism is the hypothesis that biological factors such as an organism ... in music , committing murder , or writing poetry . A biological determinist would posit that such behaviours, and personality traits in general, are mediated primarily by biological factors, such as genotype genetic makeup . An extreme variant of biological determinism might assert that an organism s behavior is determined entirely by biological factors, and that all of these factors are innate to that organism e.g. DNA . By asserting that biological factors are the primary determinants of behaviour, biological determinism implies of course that non biological factors, such as social convention ... of biological determinism might consider non innate biological factors, such as the biological ... biological factors. Biologists sometimes regard a charge of biological determinism as a straw man , as there is currently no support for strict biological determinism in the field of genetics or Developmental biology development , and virtually no support among geneticists for the strong thesis of biological ... between genes and environment. In terms of the nature versus nurture debate, biological determinism ... view point. However, the tendency to see biological determinism and social determinism as polar opposites ... is, at least to some extent, pre determined. In this sense the opposite of the biological and social ... which influence behaviour c.f. free will . The key difference between the theories of biological ... influence behaviour. A critique has been developed against the uncritical use of biological determinism ... of eugenics, depending of biological determinism, wanted to improve the human species through ... also Anthropological criminology Biological determination sociology Conscious Robots Epigenetics Eugenics ...   more details

  1. Biological clock

    wiktionary biological clock Biological clock may refer to Circadian rhythm , living organisms adaptations to solar related rhythms Senescence Age , as a Female infertility general factor of female infertility disambiguation fr Horloge biologique ur ...   more details

  1. Biological psychopathology

    orphan date April 2009 Biological psychopathology is the study of the biological basis of mental illness . It attempts to elucidate the genetics genetic and neurological etiology behind psychological disorders, including schizophrenia , mood disorders , and anxiety disorders . Although it interacts with clinical psychology, it is a specialized subset that usually takes place in an experimental context. It is known by several alternative names, including clinical neuroscience and experimental psychopathology . Biological psychopathology is specifically offered as a specialty in the PhD program at the University of Minnesota , in its high ranked psychology department. ref http areas bp index.htm Biological Psychopathology ref Some famous scientists studying biological psychopathology include Rachel Clark of Northeastern University . ref http dynamo roster.php Roster ref References reflist Category Biopsychology Category Mental health Category Abnormal psychology Category Psychopathology abnormal psych stub mental health stub ...   more details

  1. Biological Abstracts

    Biological Abstracts is a database produced by Thomson Reuters through its subsidiary BIOSIS . It includes abstract summary abstracts from Peer review peer reviewed academic journal articles in the fields of biology , biochemistry , biotechnology , botany , pre clinical and experimental medicine , pharmacology , zoology , agriculture , and veterinary medicine published since 1926. ref name BA cite web url http products tools specialized ba title Biological Abstracts format Online work accessdate 2009 08 30 ref ref name o BA About Cite web title Biological Abstracts publisher Ovid Technologies, Inc. url http site catalog DataBase 24.jsp format Online accessdate 2011 07 26 ref It can be accessed through the ISI Web of Knowledge Web of Knowledge . ref name BA Biological Abstracts RRM is similar, except that it covers meetings and conferences, literature reviews, U.S. patents, books, software and other media instead of journal articles. ref name BARRM cite web url http products services science science products a z biological abstracts rrm?parentKey 441594 title Biological Abstracts RRM format work accessdate 2009 08 30 ref The combination of the two is marketed as BIOSIS Previews . ref name BIOSIS cite web url http products services science science products scholarly research analysis research discovery biosis previews?parentKey 441594,430193 title BIOSIS Previews format online work accessdate 2009 08 30 ref References Reflist External links http media pdf qrc baqrc.pdf Biological Abstracts QRC. Accessed 2011 07 26 EBSCO http academic biological abstracts Biological Abstracts . Accessed 2011 07 26. This database is produced by Thomson Reuters. Thomson Reuters Category Thomson Reuters Category Bibliographic databases Category Online databases Category Thomson family ru Biological Abstracts ...   more details

  1. Biological detergent

    A biological detergent is a laundry detergent that contains enzymes harvested from micro organisms such as bacteria adapted to live in hot spring s. ref name spolem http worksheets docs industrial enzymes.doc Industrial uses of enzymes ref The description is commonly used in the United Kingdom , where other washing detergents are described as non biological or bio and non bio . Most manufacturers of biological detergents also produce non biological ones. Method of operation and effectiveness Biological detergents clean in the same way as non biological ones with additional effects from the enzymes, whose purpose is to break down protein, starches and fat in dirt and stains on clothing to be laundered, for example food stains, sweat and mud. Tests by the Consumers Association in the UK published in their Which? magazine rated the cleaning performance of washing powders based on stain removal, whiteness, and colour fading. It was found that the performance of various makes of biological powders ranged from 58 to 81 , and non biological powders scored from 41 to 70 . The enzymes in biological detergents enable effective cleaning at lower temperatures than required by normal detergents, but are denatured at higher temperatures ref name spolem &mdash about 40  C is recommended. ref http reviews ns washing powders full test results index.jsp Which magazine study. Also available online to subscribers at ref Controversy regarding allergic ... to the skin when wet clothes that have just been cleaned with biological detergents are touched ... particularly protease. A study by a manufacturer found that The biological products did not produce more irritation than the non biological products, confirming that the addition of enzymes to a detergent ... of mythology . ref http health article 1020902 Biological washing powders ... ref ref Cite doi 10.1111 j.1365 2133.2008.08561.x ref References refs DEFAULTSORT Biological ...   more details

  1. Biological process

    dablink See process anatomy for the alternate meaning, an outgrowth of tissue . otheruses Process disambiguation Cleanup date July 2008 Unreferenced date January 2008 A biological process is a process of a living organism . Biological processes are made up of any number of chemical reaction s or other events that results in a Chemical transformation transformation . Regulation of biological processes occurs where any process is modulated in its frequency, rate or extent. Biological processes are regulated by many means examples include the control of gene expression , protein modification or interaction with a protein or substrate molecule. Physiological process, those processes specifically pertinent to the functioning of integrated living units cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. Reproduction Digestion Response to stimulus, a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism in terms of movement, secretion , enzyme production, gene expression , etc. as a result of a Stimulus physiology stimulus . Biological interaction Interaction between organisms . the processes by which an organism has an observable effect on another organism of the same or different species. Also Fermentation biochemistry fermentation , fertilisation , germination , tropism , Hybrid biology hybridisation , metamorphosis , photosynthesis , transpiration . See also Chemical process Organic reaction Chemical transformation References reflist Category Biological processes es Funciones vitales id Proses biologis ru simple Life processes uk ...   more details

  1. Biological material

    noinclude Note the list on this page is included within Organic another diambiguation page Unreferenced date April 2010 Biological material may refer to noinclude Tissue biology , or just tissue Biomass , living or dead biological matter, often plants grown as fuel Biomass ecology , the total mass of living biological matter Biomaterial s Biocompatible material s and bioapplicable materials Biomolecule , a chemical compound that naturally occurs in living organisms Biotic material , from living things Bio based material , a processed biotic material Cellular component , material and substances of which cells and thus living organisms are composed Organic matter , derived from living things or containing carbon Viable material , capable of living, developing, or germinating under favorable conditions. see viability selection Bodily fluid noinclude See also Customs disambig noinclude Category Biological matter noinclude ...   more details

  1. Biological unit

    Orphan date February 2009 A biological unit abbreviated BU consists of the smallest number of protein molecules which form a biologically active e. g. catalytically active unit. Category Biochemistry biochem stub ...   more details

  1. Biological engineering

    Automata and Nearest Neighbor Interactions Biological engineering , biotechnological engineering or bioengineering including biological systems engineering is the application of concepts and methods ... , biological engineering uses primarily the rapidly developing body of knowledge known as molecular ... biological engineering and overlap with Biomedical Engineering can be unclear, as many universities ... accessed, 3 1 2007 ref Biomedical engineers are specifically focused on applying biological and other sciences toward medical innovations, whereas biological engineers are focused principally on applying biology but not necessarily to medical uses. Neither biological engineering nor biomedical engineering is wholly contained within the other, as there are non biological products for medical needs and biological products for non medical needs. An especially important application is the analysis ... general than that. For example, biomimetics is a branch of biological engineering which strives to understand ... method of operation of complex biological systems. Thus biological engineering is a science based discipline founded upon the biological sciences in the same way that chemical engineering, electrical ..., The bi directional connection between engineering and biology in biological engineering design, Int J Engng Ed 2005, 21, 1 7 ref Biological engineering can be differentiated from its roots of pure biology or classical engineering in the following way. Biological studies often follow a reductionist ..., building new devices, approaches, and technologies from component concepts. Biological ... new. ref name Riley Riley MR, Introducing Journal of Biological Engineering, Journal of Biological ..., biological engineering is fundamentally concerned with not just the basic science, but the practical .... Although engineered biological systems have been used to manipulate information, construct materials ... environment, our ability to quickly and reliably engineer biological systems that behave as expected ...   more details

  1. Biological database

    Inappropriate tone date March 2010 Biological databases are libraries of life sciences information, collected ... RB title Building successful biological databases journal Brief. Bioinformatics volume 5 issue 1 pages ... pmidlookup?view long&pmid 15153301 ref Information contained in biological databases includes gene ... as similarities of biological sequences and structures. Relational database concepts of computer ... biological databases. Biological database design, development, and long term management is a core area of the discipline of bioinformatics . ref cite journal author Bourne P title Will a biological database be different from a biological journal? journal PLoS Comput. Biol. volume 1 issue .... Overview Biological databases are an important tool in assisting scientists to understand and explain a host of biological phenomena from the structure of biomolecule s and their interaction, to the whole ... basic relationships amongst species in the evolutionary timeline history of life . Biological knowledge ... it difficult to ensure the consistency of information. Biological databases cross reference other ... knowledge together. An important resource for finding biological databases is a special yearly issue ... to biology and bioinformatics . Output Biological data comes in many formats. These formats include ... elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae . See also List of biological databases Biobank Gene bank National Center for Biotechnology Information NCBI dbSNP PubMed Interactome Biological data MetaBase ... http index.php Main Page Wiki of biological databases http nar database c Interactive list of biological databases , classified by categories, from Nucleic Acids Research , 2010 http Genome Proteome Search Engine to search across biological databases http DBD Database of Biological Databases http index.php CAMERA .... Category Biological databases Category Bioinformatics ar es Base de datos biol gica ...   more details

  1. Biological defense

    In biology , often biological defense mechanism , a form of adaptation that promotes the survivability of an organism by protecting it from its natural enemies. Also see chemical defense . In law , a claim that some biological factor present in the defendant provides a defense against the accused crimes, as in the so called Twinkie defense . disambig Category Criminal defenses Category Evolutionary biology Category Ecology ...   more details

  1. Biological Psychiatry

    About the journal Biological Psychiatry the field of study Biological psychiatry Infobox journal cover File Biological Psychiatry.gif editor Dr. John H. Krystal , M.D. discipline Psychiatry , Genetics , Biological psychiatry , Behavioral Sciences , Biology , Life Sciences , Neuroscience , Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Medical Sciences abbreviation Biol. Psychiatry publisher Elsevier country Netherlands ... history 1969 present Electronic versions available from 1985 ISSN 0006 3223 OCLC LCCN CODEN Biological ... published by Elsevier since 1985 and the Society of Biological Psychiatry. The journal ... disorders. Biological Psychiatry is a selective and highly cited journal in the field of psychiatric ... Impact Factor score for Biological Psychiatry is 8.674. ref Cite web url http wps find journaldescription.cws home 505750 description title Biological Psychiatry Elsevier accessdate 2010 01 29 ref History Biological Psychiatry was established in 1969 and is the official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. It is published by Elsevier on the 1st and 15th of each month ... of Biological Psychiatry. The founding Editor in Chief was Joseph Wortis , who edited the journal ... term M.D. a new position Founding editor journal Biological Psychiatry date 1993 01 01 first David ... bps aims Biological Psychiatry Aims and Scope page ref It is abstracted in BIOSIS Beck Medical ... S. Charney , 1998 2006 John H. Krystal, 2006 present See also Portal Neuroscience Biological psychiatry References Reflist External links http Society of Biological Psychiatry website http journal Biological Psychiatry website http wps find journaldescription.cws home 505750 description description Elsevier website for Biological Psychiatry http periodicals bps authorinfo Biological Psychiatry Guide for Authors Category Psychiatry ... stub uk Biological Psychiatry ...   more details

  1. The Biological Bulletin

    Infobox journal title The Biological Bulletin cover editor Carol Schachinger discipline Biology former names Zoological Bulletin abbreviation Biol. Bull. publisher Marine Biological Laboratory country United States frequency Bimonthly history 1897 present openaccess After 1 yr impact 1.942 impact year 2009 website http JSTOR 0006 3185 OCLC 1536426 CODEN BIBUBX ISSN 0006 3185 LCCN a38000518 eISSN 1939 8697 The Biological Bulletin is a peer review peer reviewed scientific journal covering the field of biology . The journal was established in 1897 as the Zoological Bulletin by Charles Otis Whitman and William Morton Wheeler . In 1899 the title was changed to The Biological Bulletin , and production was transferred to the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts . ref name Maienschein cite book author Jane Maienschein year 1989 title One Hundred Years Exploring Life, 1888 1988 The Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole publisher Jones & Bartlett Learning Jones and Bartlett Publishers location Boston Boston, Massachusetts isbn 0 86720 120 7 chapter The Library and Publications pages 73 85 url http details 100yearsexplorin00maie ref The current Editor in chief managing editor is Carol Schachinger. ref name about cite web url http misc about.shtml title About The Biological Bulletin publisher Marine Biological Laboratory year 2011 accessdate May 6, 2011 ref The Biological Bulletin is indexed by several bibliographic services, including Index Medicus , MEDLINE , Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Abstracts , Current Contents , Elsevier BIOBASE BIOBASE , and Geo Abstracts . ref name about Six issues are published per year and all content is made freely available one year after publication. ref name about According to the Journal Citation Reports , the journal has a 2009 impact factor of 1.942. ref name WoS ... reflist External links Official website http DEFAULTSORT Biological Bulletin ...   more details

  1. Biological passport

    Not to be confused with a biometric passport . An athlete biological passport is an individual, electronic record for professional athletes, in which profiles of biological markers of doping and results ... laboratoire lad prestations laboratoire passeport.htm title Information on the athlete biological ... is recent, the use of biological markers of doping has a long history in anti doping. Maybe the first ... or blood, but through the induced deviations in biological parameters, is the so called testosterone ... by direct means at that time. It is only in 2002 that the paradigm to use biological markers ... of doping following the first phase of blood tests conducted under the new biological passport. ref ... sanctioned on the basis of their biological passport The biological passport programme has allowed .... Riders have also been targeted with further doping controls based on their biological passport. Igor Astarloa received a two year sanction as a result of abnormalities detected in his biological passport. ref http news astarloa suspended and fined for uci biological passport ... in his biological passport. ref name cas hearing cite web url http 2011 03 news cas upholds biological passport slaps pellizotti and cauchioli with 2 year bans 162823 title CAS upholds biological passport, slaps Pellizotti and Caucchioli with 2 year bans author publisher VeloNews ... control in April 2009, after having been targeted under the biological passport programme. He received a two year sanction. ref cite web url http News ID 4336 Biological Passport Antonio Colom sanctioned for two years given large fine.aspx ixzz1TzAdZiui title Biological Passport ... in his biological passport. ref cite web url http News ID 8827 CAS dismisses doping ban appeal by De Bonis over biological passport.aspx title CAS dismisses doping ban appeal by De Bonis over biological passport author Shane Stokes publisher date 22 June 2011 ref Thomas ...   more details

  1. Biological integrity

    Biological integrity is associated with how pristine an natural environment environment is and its function relative to the potential or original state of an ecosystem before human alterations were imposed. Biological integrity is built on the assumption that a decline in the values of an ecosystem s Aquatic ecosystem Functions functions are primarily caused by human activity or alterations. The more an environment and its original processes are altered, the less biological integrity it holds for the community ecology community as a whole. If these processes were to change over time naturally, without ... inhabit an area and the complexities of their interactions. History The concept of biological integrity ..., physical, and biological integrity of the Nation s waters. Clean Water Act, section 101 a , USC ... about the implications of not only the meaning of biological integrity, but also how it can be Water ... definition of biological integrity see below . In 1981, EPA assembled a field of experts from the U.S. ... key bioindicator indicators to quantitatively measure biological integrity. The conference not only ... hughes etal 1982.pdf An approach for determining biological ... pdf frey 1977.pdf Biological integrity of water an historical approach. Pages 127 140 in Ballentine ... can be applied to other ecosystems. Evaluation methods In order to quantify and evaluate the biological integrity of a system, the Index of biological integrity Index of Biological Integrity IBI was created ... doi abs 10.2307 1941848 Biological integrity A long neglected aspect of water resource ... 84. ref In this index the baseline biological integrity its function before human influence and the current ... of biological integrity to any natural ecosystem. See also Portal box Ecology Water div style moz ... Bioindicator Biological monitoring working party Biosafety Biotic index Environmentalism Indicator ... http bioindicators html biointeg.html EPA Bioindicators Biological Integrity Category ...   more details

  1. Biological motion

    Biological motion is a term used by social and cognitive neuroscientists to refer to the unique visual phenomenon of a moving, animate object. Often, the stimuli used in biological motion experiments are just a few moving dots that reflect the motion of some key joints of the moving organism. Gunnar Johansson psychophysicist Gunnar Johansson invented these point light displays ref cite journal author G. Johansson title Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis journal Percept. Psychophys. volume 14 year 1973 pages 201 211 ref . History Early work suggested that the brain may contain mechanisms specialised for the detection of other humans from motion signals, but over the years this claim has been scaled down to the point where some authors now suggest that we have more generalised detectors tuned simply to the characteristic signal generated by the feet of a locomoting animal. ref cite journal title The Inversion Effect in Biological Motion Perception Evidence for a Life Detector ? journal Current Biology volume 16 issue 8 pages 821 824 author N . Troje , C . Westhoff doi 10.1016 j.cub.2006.03.022 pmid 16631591 year 2006 ref Psychophysics Perception of biological motion depends both on the motions of individual dots and the configuration orientation of the body as a whole, as well as interactions between these local and global cues. Similar to the Thatcher .... ref Mirenzi A, Hiris E, 2011, The Thatcher effect in biological motion Perception 40 10 1257 1260 ref Neuroimaging The superior temporal sulcus is known to be activated for biological motion perception ref Grossman, E., & Blake, R. 2002 . Brain areas active during visual perception of biological motion ..., Bates, E., & Sereno, M.I. 2004 Point light biological motion perception activates human premotor ..., regions that emerged to be statistically associated with deficient biological motion perception ... with developmental agnosia found intact biological motion, but deficient perception of non biological ...   more details

  1. Biological containment

    Biological containment or biocontainment describes measures aimed at preventing genetically modified organisms GMOs and their transgenes from spreading into the environment for containment methods in closed research environments, see Biosafety level . In agriculture, biocontainment is helpful in protecting conventional and organic fields from admixture with GM crops growing on neighbouring fields. With the end of the de facto moratorium on genetically modified plants in Europe, several research programmes e.g. Co Extra , Transcontainer have begun investigating biological containment strategies for GMOs. Among the techniques under consideration are three major strategies based on cleistogamous plants, male sterile plants and transplastomic plants. Biocontainment strategies In Cleistogamy cleistogamous plants , flowers do not open, and thus release no pollen. In Male sterility male sterile plants , no pollen is produced. In transplastomic plants , the genetic modification has been integrated in the DNA of chloroplasts , and the cell nucleus contains no transgenes in some plant species, the pollen contains no chloroplasts and thus no transgenes. External links http research themes topics188.html Co Extra research on biocontainment http Transcontainer research on biocontainment http topic 260 Research projects Biological confinement of new genes methods for containing the spread of genetically modified plants http BIO2008 The 2008 International Conference on Biocontainment Facilities Category Genetic engineering Category Biological techniques and tools ...   more details

  1. Biological transmutation

    For Lamarck s theory on the evolution of species Transmutation of species A biological transmutation ... . He formulated the biological transmutation hypothesis as an explanation. For example, one of the claims is that biological organisms can transform Potassium into Calcium via the addition of one ... at high velocity since biological organisms lack any mechanism to do this. The environment would have neither high pressure nor high temperature since no biological organisms could survive ... pages 24 29 url http books?id bxu n2j E 8C&dq biological transmutation&source gbs navlinks s ref Mainstream perspective Proponents interested in biological transmutations fall outside ... and pseudoscientific topics , apparent chemical or biological transmutation alchemy , etc ... falsification. Even if the evidence were reliable the biological transmutation hypothesis does not fit ... detected and would be damaging to biological systems. In 1993 Kervran was awarded a parodic Ig Nobel prize due to his improbable research in biological transmutation, calling him an ardent admirer ... facilitate chemical reactions but also facilitate biological transmutations. ref Louis Kervran, Biological evidence of low energy transmutations , Maloine, 1975 See Final Note by Costa de Beauregard ... some criticism. ref Louis Kervran, Biological Transmutations and Modern Physics , Maloine, 1982, p.40ff ... to biological reactions. He named them biological transmutation at low energy . Mainstream physicists say that biological reactions are chemical reactions, and that all chemicals reactions follow the same ... the body of a living entity. ref name tibor Other assertions Another supporter of Biological ... from Elemental Transmutations in Biological Systems for the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research ... energy nuclear transmutation of isotopes of metals Mn55 TO Fe57 in growing biological cultures ... r0WsMC ref The basic principles behind biological transmutation are similar to those behind the philosophy ...   more details

  1. Biological plausibility

    In epidemiology and biomedicine , the term biological plausibility refers to the proposal of a causal association a relationship between a putative cause and an outcome that is consistent with existing biological and medical knowledge. Biological plausibility is one component of a method of reasoning that can establish a cause and effect relationship between a biological factor and a particular disease or adverse event. It is also an important part of the process of evaluating whether a proposed therapy drug, vaccine, surgical procedure, etc. has a real benefit to a patient. This concept has application to many controversial public affairs debates, such as that over the causes of Vaccine controversy adverse vaccination outcomes . Biological plausibility is an essential element of the intellectual background of epidemiology. The term originated in the seminal work of determining the causality of smoking related disease The Surgeon General s Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health 1964 . Applications Disease and adverse event causality It is generally agreed that to be considered causal , the association between a biological factor and a disease or other bad outcome should be biologically ... we cannot demand. What is biologically plausible depends upon the biological knowledge of the day. To quote again from my Alfred Watson Epidemiologist Alfred Watson Memorial Lecture 1962 , there was no biological ... century of the excess of cancer in chimney sweep s. It was lack of biological knowledge in the 19th ... there was no biological knowledge to support the evidence against rubella . In short, the association ... found to point to a mechanism of action or to demonstrate the desired biological effect. This process is said to confer biological plausibility. Since large, definitive RCTs are extremely expensive ... of final confirmation or refutation in them. In distinction to biological plausibility , clinical ... importance, biological plausibility is lacking for most alternative medicine complementary and alternative ...   more details

  1. Biological target

    A biological target is a biopolymer such as a protein or nucleic acid whose activity can be modified by an external stimulus. The definition is context dependent and can refer to the biological target of a pharmacological activity pharmacologically active drug Chemical compound compound , or the receptor target of a hormone like insulin . The implication is that a molecule is hit by a signal and its behavior is thereby changed. Biological targets are most commonly proteins such as enzyme s, ion channel s, and receptor biochemistry receptor s. Mechanism The external stimulus i.e. , chemical substance physically binds to the biological target. ref name pmid2536880 cite journal author Raffa RB, Porreca F title Thermodynamic analysis of the drug receptor interaction journal Life Sci. volume 44 issue 4 pages 245 58 year 1989 pmid 2536880 doi 10.1016 0024 3205 89 90182 3 ref ref name pmid7939660 cite journal author Moy VT, Florin EL, Gaub HE title Intermolecular forces and energies between ligands and receptors journal Science volume 266 issue 5183 pages 257 9 year 1994 pmid 7939660 doi 10.1126 science.7939660 ref The interaction between the substance and the target may be noncovalent bonding noncovalent reversible covalent bond covalent A chemical reaction occurs between the stimulus and target in which the stimulus becomes chemically bonded to the target, but the reverse reaction also readily occurs in which the bond can be broken. irreversible covalent The stimulus is permanently bound to the target through irreversible chemical bond formation. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, the following can occur There is no direct change in the biological target, except that the binding ... of receptors is referred to as inverse agonist inverse agonism . Drug targets The term biological ... activity is modified by a drug resulting in a desirable therapeutic effect . In this context, the biological ... containing biological targets information Therapeutic Targets Database TTD DrugBank Binding DB References ...   more details

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