Algorithms in C , Parts 14: Fundamentals, Data Structure, Sorting, Searching, Third Edition
Encyclopedia results for Algorithms in C , Parts 14: Fundamentals, Data Structure, Sorting, Searching, Third Edition

Data structure
Image Hash table 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 SP.svg thumb 315px right a hash table In computer science , a data structure ... be used algorithmic efficiency efficiently . ref Paul E. Black ed. , entry for data structure in Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures . U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology . 15 ... May 21, 2009. ref ref Entry data structure in the Encyclop dia Britannica 2009 http www.britannica.com EBchecked topic 152190 data structure Online entry accessed on May 21, 2009. ref Different kinds ..., efficient data structures are a key to designing efficient algorithms . Some formal design methods and programming language s emphasize data structures, rather than algorithms, as the key organizing factor in software design. Overview An array data structure stores a number of elements of the same ... set is an abstract data structure that can store specific values, without any particular sequence ... them. Data structures not containing code, like those above, are called plain old data structure ... and manipulated by the program. Thus the record computer science record and Array data structure ... while the linked data structure s are based on storing addresses of data items within the structure ... linked list XOR linking The implementation of a data structure usually requires writing a set of subroutine procedures that create and manipulate instances of that structure. The efficiency of a data ... concept of an abstract data type , a data structure that is defined indirectly by the operations ... array data type array s in the C programming language C language or multi dimensional arrays in Pascal ... that allows data structure implementations to be reused by different programs. Modern languages usually come with standard libraries that implement the most common data structures. Examples are the C .... Many known data structures have concurrent data structure concurrent versions that allow multiple computing threads to access the data structure simultaneously. See also Wikipedia books Data structures ... more details


Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs
italictitle Algorithms Data Structures Programs ref cite book publisher Prentice Hall date 1976 title Algorithms Data Structures Programs last Wirth first Niklaus language English id 0130224189 isbn 978 0 13 022418 7 url http portal.acm.org citation.cfm?id 540029 ref is a 1976 book written by Niklaus Wirth covering some of the fundamental topics of computer programming , particularly that algorithm s and data structure s are inherently related. For example, if one has a sorted list one will use a search algorithm optimal for sorted lists. The book was one of the most influential computer science books of the time and, like Wirth s other work, extensively used in education Fact date March 2009 . The Turbo Pascal compiler written by Anders Hejlsberg was largely inspired by the Tiny Pascal compiler in Niklaus Wirth s book. Chapter outline Chapter 1 Fundamental Data Structures Chapter 2 Sorting algorithm Sorting Chapter 3 Recursion Recursive Algorithms Chapter 4 Dynamic Information Structures Chapter 5 Language Structures and Compilers Appendix A the ASCII character set Appendix B Pascal programming language Pascal syntax diagrams References reflist External links http www.inf.ethz.ch personal wirth books AlgorithmE0 ETH Zurich N. Wirth Books Compilerbau Algorithms Data Structures Programs Category Computer programming books Category History of computing book stub cs Algoritmy datov struktury programy ... more details


Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures
The Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures is a dictionary style reference for many of the algorithm s, algorithmic techniques, archetypal problems and data structure s found in the field of computer science . ref name dads http www.nist.gov dads Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures Bot generated title ref The dictionary is maintained by Paul E. Black, ref name dads and is hosted by the Software and Systems Division, Information Technology Laboratory, a part of the National Institute of Standards and Technology . ref name dads It was created in September 1998. ref name dads References reflist External links http www.nist.gov dads Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures Category Algorithms and data structures Category Computer science websites Category Government owned websites Category Online dictionaries ru ... more details


Tree (data structure)
Fundamental Algorithms , Third Edition. Addison Wesley, 1997. ISBN 0 201 89683 4 . Section 2.3 ... C. elegans javascript CS Trees Data structures DEFAULTSORT Tree Data Structure Category ..., at the top, has no parent. In computer science , a tree is a widely used data structure that simulates a hierarchical tree structure with a set of linked Vertex graph theory nodes . Mathematically, it is an tree .... Terminology A node computer science node is a structure which may contain a value, a condition, or represent a separate data structure which could be a tree of its own . Each node in a tree has ... drawn at the top. In some trees, such as heap data structure heaps , the root node has special properties ... with pointers to their children, their parents, or both, or as items in an Array data structure ... . Trees and graphs The tree data structure can be generalized to represent directed graph s by removing ... replaced by different terminology for example, source and target . Different graph data structure ... graph theory tree is a connected acyclic Graph data structure graph unless stated otherwise, trees and graphs are undirected. There is no one to one correspondence between such trees and trees as data structure. We can take an arbitrary undirected tree, arbitrarily pick one of its vertex graph theory ... corresponds to a tree data structure. Picking a different root or different ordering produces a different ... sorting algorithm sorted lists of data As a workflow for Digital compositing compositing digital images for visual effects Routing algorithms See also Tree structure Tree graph theory Tree set theory ... Stein . Introduction to Algorithms , Second Edition. MIT Press and McGraw Hill, 2001. ISBN 0 262 03293 ... and Data Structures http tree.phi sci.com STL like C tree class http ideainfo.8m.com Description ... at which operations on the tree commonly begin although some algorithms begin with the leaf ... been traversed. Common operations Enumerating all the items Enumerating a section of a tree Searching ... more details


Heap (data structure)
, and in the sorting algorithm heapsort . A heap data structure should not be confused with the heap ... edition 3rd year 2004 chapter 7.3.6. Bottom Up Heap Construction pages 338&ndash 341 ref Applications The heap data structure has many applications. Heapsort One of the best sorting methods being in place ... structure. See also Sorting algorithm Stack data structure Queue data structure Tree data structure ...About the programming data structure the dynamic memory area Dynamic memory allocation Image Max Heap.svg ... tree data structure tree based data structure that satisfies the heap property if B is a child ... was originally used only for the data structure. Some early popular languages such as Lisp programming language Lisp provided dynamic memory allocation using heap data structures, which gave the memory ... bottom up in O n . ref cite book title Data Structures and Algorithms in Java first1 Michael T. last1 ... space efficient way using an array data structure array alone. The first or last element will contain ... Commons category Heaps Wikibooks Data Structures Min and Max Heaps http mathworld.wolfram.com Heap.html Heap at Wolfram MathWorld CS Trees Data structures DEFAULTSORT Heap Data Structure Category Heaps ... two. The heap is one maximally efficient implementation of an abstract data type called a priority queue ..., Ronald L. Rivest 1990 Introduction to algorithms. MIT Press McGraw Hill. ref are amortized analysis ... reports 1991 TR 2091 027.pdf ref List of algorithms Graph algorithms Graph algorithms By using heaps as internal traversal data structures, run time will be reduced by polynomial order. Examples of such problems ... an array in place. Implementations The C Standard Template Library provides the make heap, push heap and pop heap algorithms for heaps usually implemented as binary heaps , which operate on arbitrary ... generalized heap implementation in C with D heap and B heap support. The Java programming language ... pkg container heap heap package with heap algorithms that operate on an arbitrary type that satisfied ... more details


Persistent data structure
In computing , a persistent data structure is a data structure which always preserves the previous version of itself when it is modified such data structures are effectively Immutable object immutable ... structure. A persistent data structure is not a data structure committed to persistent storage , such as a disk this is a different and unrelated sense of the word persistent. A data structure .... The data structure is fully persistent if every version can be both accessed and modified. If there is also ... make only small changes to a data structure. A better method is to exploit the similarity between ... versions share which parts of the structure, and because it is often desirable to discard old versions ... persistent In partially persistence model, we may query any previous version of the data structure ... Array data structure array . For access time , we must find the right version at each node ... to the root. Maintain an array of roots indexed by timestamp. The data structure pointed to by time ... up with a way to combine the advantages of Persistent data structure fat nodes and Persistent data ... the access time. The access time specifies the version of the data structure that we care about. If the modification .... br With this algorithm , given any time t, at most one modification box exists in the data structure ..., both updates and queries are allowed on any version of the data structure. br Confluently persistent ... data structures Perhaps the simplest persistent data structure is the linked list singly ... doi 10.1145 6138.6151 ref and Stack data structure stack s, ref name okasaki Cite journal author ... effort, for example Queue data structure Queue , Double ended queue s dequeue , Min Dequeue which have ... and butter data structure in functional languages. In ML programming language ML derived languages ... are greater than the node. For instance, the set of data xs a, b, c, d, f, g, h might be represented ... algorithms fall 2005 lecture notes persistent.pdf Persistent Data Structures from MIT open course ... more details


Linked data structure
to one part of a data structure even while other processes are working on other parts. On the other hand, access to any particular node in a linked data structure requires following a chain of references ...In computer science , a linked data structure is a data structure which consists of a set of record computer science data records node computer science nodes linked together and organized by reference computer science references links or pointer computer programming pointer s . In linked data structures, the links are usually treated as special data type s that can only be reference computer science dereferenced or compared for equality. Linked data structures are thus contrasted with Array data structure arrays and other data structures that require performing arithmetic operations on pointers ... 2012 as long as no arithmetic is done on those indices, the data structure is essentially a linked ... data structures. They are also key building blocks for many efficient algorithms, such as topological sort ref name knuth Donald Knuth , The Art of Computer Programming ref and disjoint set data structure ... links that are stored as part of the data in the structure itself. It is not necessary that it should be stored in the adjacent memory locations. Every structure has a data field and a address ... This is an example of the node structure used for implementation of linked list in C. source lang c ... data structure in whose nodes data values can be stored from some ordered set , which is such that in an in order ... data structure is built dynamically and never needs to be bigger than the programmer requires. It also requires no guessing in terms of how much space you must allocate when using a linked data structure ... connected and sequential portion of memory. But in linked data structure, the reference ... of the number of entries. Broadly the implementation of these linked data structure is through .... In arrays, nth element can be accessed immediately, while in a linked data structure we have to follow ... more details


Compressed data structure
The term compressed data structure arises in the computer science subfields of algorithms , data structures , and theoretical computer science . It refers to a data structure whose operations are roughly as fast as those of a conventional data structure for the problem, but whose size can be substantially smaller. The size of the compressed data structure is typically highly dependent upon the entropy of the data being represented. Important examples of compressed data structures include the compressed suffix array ref R. Grossi and J. S. Vitter, Compressed Suffix Arrays and Suffix Trees with Applications to Text Indexing and String Matching , Proceedings of the 32nd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing , May 2000, 397 406. Journal version in SIAM Journal on Computing , 35 2 , 2005, 378 407. ref ref R. Grossi, A. Gupta, and J. S. Vitter, High Order Entropy Compressed Text Indexes, Proceedings of the 14th Annual SIAM ACM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms , January 2003, 841 850. ref and the FM index , ref P. Ferragina and G. Manzini, Opportunistic Data Structures with Applications, Proceedings of the 41st IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science , November 2000, 390 398. Journal version in Indexing Compressed Text, Journal of the ACM , 52 4 , 2005, 552 581. ref both of which ... the self indexing feature. An important related notion is that of a succinct data structure , which ... needed to represent the data. In contrast, the size of a compressed data structure depends upon the particular data being represented. When the data are compressible, as is often the case in practice for natural language text, the compressed data structure can occupy substantially less space than the information theoretic minimum. References references Category Data structures ..., both data structures are self indexing, in that they can reconstruct the text T in a random access ... space than the size of T . They also support searching for arbitrary patterns, as opposed to the inverted ... more details


Plain old data structure
A plain old data structure POD is a data structure that is represented only as passive collections of field values, without using encapsulation computer science encapsulation or other object oriented features. Plain old data structures are appropriate when there is a part of a system where it should be clearly indicated that the detailed logic for data manipulation and integrity are elsewhere. PODs are often found at the boundaries of a system, where information is being moved to and from other systems or persistent storage and the business logic that is found in other parts of the system is not relevant ... IEC location Geneva title Programming languages C id 14882 2003 E edition Second edition date 2003 10 15 http www.fnal.gov docs working groups fpcltf Pkg ISOcxx doc POD.html C Language Note POD Types ... C Category Composite data types ru zh POD ... constructed from external data, in a part of the system where the semantic checks and interpretations needed for valid objects have not yet been applied. A POD type in C is defined as either ... destructor, and no non static data members that are not themselves PODs. Moreover, a POD class ... data, no base classes and no virtual functions. The standard includes statements about how PODs must behave in C . In certain contexts, C allows only POD types to be used. For example, a tt union tt in C cannot contain a class that has virtual function s or nontrivial constructors or destructors ... be called for a union. POD types can also be used for interfacing with C programming language C , which ... concept corresponds to a class with public data members and no methods Java Code Conventions 10.1 , http www.oracle.com technetwork java codeconventions 137265.html 177 i.e., a data transfer object . Others ... data representations such as XML or JSON can also be used as PODs if no significant semantic restrictions ... 29, 1999. http www.oracle.com technetwork java codeconventions 137265.html 177 Java Language Data ... more details


Library of Efficient Data types and Algorithms
The Library of Efficient Data types and Algorithms LEDA is a proprietary software proprietarily licensed library computing software library providing C implementations of a broad variety of algorithms for graph theory and computational geometry . ref citation last1 Mehlhorn first1 Kurt last2 N her first2 Stefan title LEDA A Platform for Combinatorial and Geometric Computing publisher Cambridge University Press year 1999 isbn 978 0521563291 . ref It was originally developed by the Max Planck Institute for Informatics Saarbr cken . Since 2001, LEDA is further developed and distributed by the Algorithmic Solutions Software GmbH. LEDA is available under Free, Research, and Professional editions. The Free edition is freeware , with source code access available for purchase. The Research and Professional editions require payment of licensing fees for any use. References reflist External links Official http www.algorithmic solutions.com leda index.htm Category Computer libraries Category Max Planck Institute for Computer Science compu library stub ... more details


Array data structure
Distinguish Array data type Refimprove date September 2008 In computer science , an array data structure or simply array is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements value computer science ... Paul E. date 13 November 2008 work Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures publisher National ... data structure are required to have the same size and should use the same data representation ... to implement other data structures, such as heap data structure heaps , hash table s, double ended queue deque s, queue data structure queue s, stack data structure stacks , String computer science ... List data structure comparison Dynamic array Growable array s are similar to arrays but add the ability ... Data Structures Arrays Commons category Array data structure Data structures Use dmy dates date September 2010 DEFAULTSORT Array Data Structure Category Arrays Category Data structures az Massiv bn ... Runtime Flexible Multi dimensional Arrays and Views for C 98 and C 0x class cs.DS year 2010 ref ref ... MultiArray a C library for generic programming with arrays journal Software Practice and Experience ... integer variables, with indices 0 through 9, may be stored as 10 Word data type words at memory addresses ... R. Richardson 2002 , The Book on Data Structures. iUniverse, 112 pages. ISBN 0 595 24039 9, 9780595240395 ... important data structures, and are used by almost every program. They are also used to implement many other data structures, such as list computing list s and string computer science string s. They effectively .... The term array is often used to mean array data type , a kind of data type provided by most high ... s, or other data structures. The term is also used, especially in the description of algorithm s, to mean associative array or abstract array , a theoretical computer science model an abstract data type ... used machine language programming to set up and access array structures for data tables, vector and matrix ... sorting program merge sort in 1945, during the building of the EDVAC first stored program computer ... more details


Disjointset data structure
In computing , a disjoint set data structure is a data structure that keeps track of a Set mathematics ... these two operations, a disjoint set data structure is sometimes called a union find data structure ... set data structure is to create a linked list for each set. The element at the head of each list ... L. Rivest , and Clifford Stein . Introduction to Algorithms , Second Edition. MIT Press and McGraw Hill, 2001. ISBN 0 262 03293 7. Chapter 21 Data structures for Disjoint Sets, pp. 498&ndash 524. ref For asymptotically faster operations, a different data structure is needed. Analysis of the na ve ... O 1 math for this structure because each node contains the name of the list to which it belongs. A similar argument holds for merging the trees in the data structures discussed below, additionally it helps explain the time analysis of some operations in the binomial heap and Fibonacci heap data structures. Disjoint set forests Disjoint set forests are data structures where each set is represented by a tree data structure , in which each node holds a reference to its parent node see spaghetti ... Omega alpha n math words must be accessed by any disjoint set data structure per operation ... 21 ref This data structure is used by the Boost Graph Library to implement its http www.boost.org ... developed a persistent data structure persistent version of the disjoint set forest data structure ... Union Find Data Structure. In ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on ML, Freiburg, Germany, October 2007. ref See also Partition refinement , a different data structure for maintaining disjoint sets, with updates that split ... union find data structure Python implementation Category Data structures de Union Find Struktur fa ... subsets. A union find algorithm is an algorithm that performs two useful operations on such a data structure Find Determine which subset a particular element is in. This can be used for determining ... . So for any given element of any given list in the structure described, it will need to be updated ... more details


Encyclop�dia Britannica Third Edition
H. C. G. last Matthew ref Gleig then also edited the 1801 and 1803 supplements. File Third Edition of Encyclopedia Britannica, 1797.jpg 200px thumb left Face page of a volume from the Third Edition of Encyclop dia Britannica The third edition was published as 300 weekly numbers 1 shilling apiece these numbers were collected and bound in 30 parts 10 shilling, sixpence each and finally in 18 volumes with 14,579 pages and 542 plates. The third edition established the foundation of the Britannica ...File 3rdBritannica.JPG 200px thumb right Encyclop dia Britannica, Third edition, 1797. Photo includes 18 volume third edition of 1797 plus two volume supplement dated 1803. The Encyclop dia Britannica Third Edition 1797 is an 18 volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclop dia Britannica . It was developed ... by Macfarquhar, and all the copperplates were created by Bell. History of the edition The third edition ... 1808 , to carry on the job as editor for the remainder of the third edition. James Thomson minister ... appears better than in previous editions. Some printings of the Third edition contain 20 ... symbols used in the third edition, is exactly reproduced from the Encyclop dia Britannica Second ... to the Third Edition, dated 1801. Second edition of supplement dated 1803 After the death ... the Third edition. A second edition of the two volumes, with improvements , was printed ... Washington, who does not have his own article in the Third edition, has a 4 page article in the Supplement ... Third Edition Category 1797 books Category 1788 establishments in Scotland Category Culture in Edinburgh Category Encyclop dia Britannica Third Edition Category History of Edinburgh Category Scottish ... the scope of the 2nd edition, Macfarquhar s encyclopedic vision was finally realized. This edition was also very profitable, yielding 42,000 profit on the sale of about 10,000 copies. The 3rd edition ... People... George Gleig in the Dedication of the 3rd edition of the Encyclop dia Britannica Like the Encyclop dia ... more details


Data structure alignment
of C structs on x86 Data structure members are stored sequentially in a memory so that in the structure ...Refimprove date March 2009 Data structure alignment is the way data is arranged and accessed in computer memory. It consists of two separate but related issues data alignment and data structure padding ... bytes between the end of the last data structure and the start of the next, which is data structure ... error alignment fault . Even though the previous data structure ends at the 14th byte, the next data structure should start at the 16th byte. Two padding bytes are inserted between the two data structures to align the next data structure to the 16th byte. Although data structure alignment is a fundamental ... language allow at least partial control of data structure padding, which may be useful in certain ... aggregate a data structure or array is aligned if and only if each primitive datum in the aggregate ... or words contained the data and extract the equivalent value. Data structure padding Although the compiler ... aligned. In addition the data structure as a whole may be padded with a final unnamed member ... members. Although C programming language C and C do not allow the compiler to reorder structure members ... the members of a structure to a certain level of alignment, e.g. pack 2 means align data members ... structures is most frequently used to conserve memory space , it may also be used to format a data structure ... the start of a data structure where mod is the Modulo operation modulo operator pseudo code, see ... of memory then each member of the data structure depicted above would be 2 byte aligned. Data1 would ... Data2 int Data3 char Data4 source After compilation the data structure will be supplemented with padding ... Data structure alignment least common multiple requires at least 2 args and http en.wikipedia.org wiki Talk Data structure alignment calculation of whole structure alignment and paddings . date February ... members or changing the compiler s alignment or packing of structure members. source lang c struct ... more details


Concurrent data structure
Refimprove date November 2009 In computer science , a concurrent data structure is a particular way of storing and organizing data for access by multiple computing Thread computer science threads or process computing processes on a computer . Historically, such data structures were used on uniprocessor ... of multi core processors , the term has come to stand mainly for data structures that can be accessed by multiple threads which may actually access the data simultaneously because they run on different processors that communicate with one another. The concurrent data structure sometimes also called a shared data structure is usually considered to reside in an abstract storage environment ... Moir and Nir Shavit title Handbook of Data Structures and Applications chapter http www.cs.tau.ac.il shanir concurrent data structures.pdf Concurrent Data Structures edition 1st editor Dinesh Metha and Sartaj ... environment one specifies the data structure s properties and checks that they are implemented ... of liveness requirements tend to define the data structure. The method computer science method calls can be Blocking computing blocking or Non blocking algorithm non blocking . Data structures are not restricted ... approaches for arguing the safety properties of a concurrent data structure such as serializability ... difficult to design and verify a correct data structure implementation. A key measure for performance ... one can scale the performance of a concurrent data structure is captured by a formula known as Amdahl ... schema DEFAULTSORT Concurrent Data Structure Category Data structures Category Concurrent ... operations on the data by the operating system, even though the processors never issued two operations that accessed the data simultaneously. Today, as multiprocessor computer architectures ... or a distributed collection of storage modules. Basic principles Concurrent data structures, intended for use in parallel or distributed computing environments, differ from sequential data structures ... more details


Succinct data structure
In computer science , a succinct data structure is data structure which uses an amount of space that is close ... to encode bit vector s, unlabeled tree data structure trees , and planar graph s. Unlike general lossless data compression algorithms, succinct data structures retain the ability to use them in place, without decompressing them first. A related notion is that of a compressed data structure , in which the size of the data structure depends upon the particular data being represented ... some data. A representation of this data is called implicit data structure implicit if it takes math ... of storage space. Thus, since each of these auxiliary tables take math o n math space, this data structure ... ref references DEFAULTSORT Succinct Data Structure Category Data structures ja ... using some permutation of the input data the most well known example of this is the heap. Succinct dictionaries ... math bits of storage space the original bit array and an math o n math auxiliary structure and supports ... find the number of bits set in the small blocks. This is often beneficial, since succinct data structures find their uses in large data sets, in which case cache misses become much more frequent ... structure used for rank however, this takes math O lg n math time in the worst case. A more complicated structure using math 3n lg lg n O sqrt n lg n lg lg n o n math bits of additional storage ... name brodnik1999membership This structure can be extended to support rank and select queries and takes ... last Jacobson first G. J title Succinct static data structures year 1988 ref ref name raman2002succinct ... Proceedings of the thirteenth annual ACM SIAM symposium on Discrete algorithms date 2002 url http ... title Squeezing succinct data structures into entropy bounds booktitle Proceedings of the seventeenth ... and Experimental Algorithms WEA date 2005 url http www.dcc.uchile.cl gnavarro algoritmos ps wea05.pdf ... journal Experimental Algorithms year 2008 url http sux.dsi.unimi.it paper.pdf ref ref name brodnik1999membership ... more details


Data structure diagram
Image Aggregate Data Structure Diagram.jpg thumb 240px Example of a Data Structure Diagram. A Data Structure Diagram DSD is a data model used to describe Conceptual schema conceptual data models by providing graphical notations which document entity entities and their Relational model relationship s, and the Integrity constraints constraint s that binds them. The basic graphic elements of DSDs are box es, representing entities, and arrow s, representing relationships. Data structure diagrams are most useful for documenting complex data entities. Overview Image Data Structure Diagram.jpg thumb left Data Structure Diagram. Data Structure Diagram is a diagram type that is used to depict the structure of data elements in the data dictionary . The data structure diagram is a graphical alternative to the composition specifications within such data dictionary entries. ref http knowledge.fhwa.dot.gov tam aashto.nsf All Documents 4825476B2B5C687285256B1F00544258 FILE DIGloss.pdf Data Integration Glossary , U.S. Department of Transportation, August 2001. ref Data structure diagrams are an extension of the entity relationship model E R model . In DSDs, Attribute computing attribute s are specified inside the entity boxes rather than outside of them, while relationships are drawn as boxes composed of attributes which specify the constraints that bind entities together. The E R model, while ... between each entity. There are several styles for representing data structure diagrams, with the notable difference in the manner of defining Cardinality data modeling cardinality . The choices are between ... of the cardinality. Data flow diagram Entity relationship diagram Unified Modeling Language References Reflist Refimprove date November 2008 Further reading commons category Data Structure Diagrams Charles W. Bachman . Data structure diagrams . Data Base, 1969, 1 2 4 10. Tom DeMarco . Structured ... Wiki . Data model DEFAULTSORT Data Structure Diagram Category Data modeling diagrams de Datenstrukturdiagramm ... more details


Implicit data structure
In computer science , an implicit data structure is a data structure that uses very little memory besides the actual data elements i.e. very little information other than main data is stored in these structures. These are storage schemes which retain no pointers and represent the file of n k key records as a simple n by k array n thus retrieve faster. In implicit data structures the only structural information to be given is to allow the array to grow and shrink as n. No extra information is required. It is called implicit because most of the structure of the elements is expressed implicitly by their order ... and can mean from O 1 to O log n extra space. Implicit data structure encodes data efficiently ... at various position in data. To achieve optimal coding, we use bits instead of bytes. Implicit data structures are frequently also succinct data structure s. Although one may argue that disk space is no longer ... I O devices. Hence, if a larger chunk of an implicit data structure fits in main memory the operations ... of this structure takes average time.The same result obtain for the data structures in which ... that implicit data structures are designed to improve is main memory utilization. Hard disks, or any other means of large data capacity, I O devices, are orders of magnitudes slower than main memory. Hence ... data structures can improve cache efficiency and thus running speed, especially if the method used improves locality. Keys are scanned very efficiently. Downloading indexed data in mobiles becomes easier. Implicit data structure for weighted element For presentation of elements with different weight several data structures are required.The structure uses one more location besides required for values of elements.The first structure supports worst case search time in terms of rank of weight ... data structures include Binary heap Beap Further reading See publications of http photon.poly.edu ... gnf Greg Frederickson Category Data structures ... more details


Zipper (data structure)
that it can be adapted to List computing lists , Tree data structure trees , and other Inductive Definition inductively defined data structures. Such modified data structures are usually referred to as a tree with zipper or a list with zipper to emphasize that the structure is conceptually a tree ... the scenes the zipper are efficient when making functional changes to a data structure, where a new, slightly changed, data structure is returned from an edit operation instead of making a change in the current data structure . Example Bidirectional list traversal Many common data structures in computer science can be expressed as the structure generated by a few primitive constructor operation s or observer operation s. These include the structure of finite lists, which can be generated by two ... from the order of the original data structure. Specifically, the context of 3 in the list 1, 2, 3 is represented as 2, 1 . A list with a zipper represents the entire structure, and a location within the structure. This is a pair consisting of the location s context, and the part of the structure ... data structure and modify it directly perhaps after object copy deep cloning it, to avoid affecting ... the same goal as the conventional zipper without creating any type specific data structure ... programming in Haskell generic programming to generate a traversal function for any data structure ... concept of Focus computing focus or of moving around in some set of data, since its semantics reflect ... between an internal substructure and its next containing structure. When the types are described in a particular ... Type indexed data types . 23 July 2003 External links http www.haskell.org haskellwiki Zipper Zipper ... Functional programming Category Data structures th ... more details


Search data structure
In computer science , a search data structure is any data structure that allows the efficient retrieval of specific items from a set mathematics set of items, such as a specific record computer science record from a database . The simplest, most general, and least efficient search structure is merely an unordered sequential list computing list of all the items. Locating the desired item in such a list, by the linear search method, inevitably requires a number of operations proportional to the number n of items, in the worst case complexity worst case as well as in the average case complexity average case . Useful search data structures allow faster retrieval however, they are limited to queries of some specific kind. Moreover, since the cost of building such structures is at least proportional to n , they only pay off if several queries are to be performed on the same database or on a database that changes little between queries . Static search structures are designed for answering many Information retrieval queries on a fixed database dynamic structures also allow insertion, deletion ... 50,000 and 100,000 and hired between 1995 and 2007 . Single ordered keys Array data structure Array ... Heap data structure Heap Asymptotic amortized worst case analysis In this table, the asymptotic ... n O log n O log n O log n O n Heap data structure Heap O log n O log n sup sup O n O 1 O n Hash table ... is only an approximate summary for each data structure there are special situations and variants that may lead to different costs. Also two or more data structures can be combined to obtain lower costs. Footnotes reflist See also List of data structures Category Data structures ... of fixing the search structure to account for the changes in the database. Classification The simplest ... case. class wikitable Insert Delete Search Find maximum Space usage Unsorted Array data structure array Constant time O 1 O 1 Linear time O n O n O n Value indexed array O 1 O 1 O 1 O n O ... more details


Sorting network
of Computer Programming , Volume 3 Sorting and Searching , Third Edition. Addison Wesley, 1997 ... between sorting networks and comparison sorting algorithms is that the sequence of comparisons is set ... sequences is useful for parallel execution of the algorithms. Despite the simplicity of the model, sorting network theory is surprisingly deep and complex. Introduction Image Sorting network comparator demonstration.svg thumb 150px Demonstration of a comparator in a sorting network. A sorting network ... sort td tr table The structure of these two sorting networks are very similar. A construction ... c remains a fundamental open problem. Some important progress in designing optimal sorting network ... , and Clifford Stein . Introduction to Algorithms , Second Edition. MIT Press and McGraw Hill ... lewis essays algorithms sortnets sort net.html Sorting Networks http pages.ripco.net jgamble ... networks and the END algorithm sorting Category Computer engineering Category Sorting algorithms da ...Image SimpleSortingNetwork2.svg thumb 250px A simple sorting network consisting of four wires and five connectors A sorting network is an abstract mathematical model of a network of wires and comparator ... that will correctly sort all possible inputs into ascending order is called a sorting network. The full operation of a simple sorting network is shown below. It is easy to see why this sorting .... Assuming we have a sorting network of size n , we can construct a network of size nowrap ... td Image Recursive bubble sorting network.svg thumb 250px A sorting network constructed recursively ... sort td td Image Recursive insertion sorting network.svg thumb 250px A sorting network constructed ... shows that, in fact, they are identical. table tr td Image Six wire bubble sorting network.svg 200px thumb Bubble sorting network td td Image Six wire insertion sorting network.svg 200px thumb Insertion sorting network td td Image Six wire pyramid sorting network.svg 200px thumb When allowing for parallel ... more details


Sorting
grouping and labeling items with similar properties together by sorts . Sorting information or data For sorting we can either specify a weak order should not come after or a strict weak order should ... difficult to separate. See also Collation Sorting algorithm Unicode collation algorithm Organizing External links http www.cs.ubc.ca harrison Java sorting demo.html Demonstration of Sorting Algorithms ... sort and quick sort and compares their performance. Category Sorting algorithms cs T d n sn Kuketa de Sortierung fa id Sorting nl Sorteren pt Ordena o computa o tr S ralama ...For the sorting of sediment Sorting sediment Image Metal movable type.jpg right 300px thumb Sorting type wiktionarypar sort sorting Sorting is any process of arranging items in some sequence and or in different ... other, see Binary relation Operations on binary relations operations on binary relations . For the sorting .... Sorting n tuple s depending on context also called e.g. Object composition record s consisting ... of the items items with the same sort key are equivalent with respect to sorting. See also Sorting algorithm Stability stable sorting . If different items have different sort key values then this defines ... 2000 will sort ahead of 1 1 2001. In computer science , sorting is one of the most extensively researched ... a search operation see sorting algorithm . The main purpose of sorting information is to optimise ... . Richard Saul Wurman , in his book Information Anxiety , proposes that the most common sorting ... to these basic sorting methods e.g. a Google search returns a list of web pages in a hierarchical ... match downwards . The opposite of sorting, rearranging a sequence of items in a random or meaningless order, is called shuffling . Physical sorting processes Various sorting tasks are essential in industrial ... sorting by size and weight . Sorting is also a naturally occurring process that results in the concentration of ore or Sorting sediment sediment . Sorting results from the application of some criterion ... more details


External sorting
3 Sorting and Searching , Second Edition. Addison Wesley, 1998, ISBN 0 201 89685 0, Section 5.4 External Sorting, pp.248&ndash 379. ref ref Ellis Horowitz and Sartaj Sahni , Fundamentals of Data Structures , H. Freeman & Co., ISBN 0 7167 8042 9. ref For example, for sorting 900 megabyte s of data using only 100 megabytes of RAM Read 100 MB of the data in main memory and sort by some conventional method, like quicksort . Write the sorted data to disk. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until all of the data is in sorted ...External sorting is a term for a class of sorting algorithm s that can handle massive amounts of data . External sorting is required when the data being sorted do not fit into the main memory of a computing ... . External sorting typically uses a sort merge strategy. In the sorting phase, chunks of data small ... assumptions, one could sort at least 500 GB of data using 1 GB of main memory before a third pass became ... external sorting algorithms implemented using finely tuned hardware and software. Winning implementations ... costs proportional to the data size . Many different factors can affect hardware s maximum sorting ... aid in thinking about sorting and other external memory algorithms. ref J. S. Vitter , http www.ittc.ku.edu jsv Papers Vit.IO book.pdf Algorithms and Data Structures for External Memory , Series on Foundations ... A sample pennysort implementation using Judy Arrays Category Sorting algorithms Category External ... of external sorting is the external merge sort algorithm, which sorts chunks that each fit in RAM, then merges ... 10 MB of its associated 100 MB sorted chunk until no more data from the chunk is available ... rather, sequential parts of the chunk can be loaded as needed. Additional passes That example ... fewer merge passes. As the number of chunks increases, the amount of data we can read from each chunk at a time during the merge process decreases. For sorting, say, 50 GB in 100 MB of RAM, using a single merge pass isn t efficient the disk seeks required to fill the input buffers with data from ... more details


Sorting algorithm
. Efficient sorting is important for optimizing the use of other algorithms such as search algorithm ... new sorting algorithms are still being invented for example, library sort was first published in 2004 . Sorting algorithms are prevalent in introductory computer science classes, where the abundance ..., such as big O notation , divide and conquer algorithm s, data structure s, randomized algorithm ... This section is linked from Merge sort Sorting algorithms used in computer science are often classified ... of the list n . For typical sorting algorithms good behavior is O n log n and bad ... in the average case. Comparison sort Comparison based sorting algorithms , which evaluate the elements ... algorithms . Memory usage and use of other computer resources . In particular, some sorting ... Stability stable sorting algorithms maintain the relative order of records with equal keys i.e. ..., 6 order maintained 3, 1 3, 7 4, 2 5, 6 order changed Unstable sorting algorithms may change the relative order of records with equal keys, but stable sorting algorithms never do so. Unstable sorting ... width 350 Other notes Sorting Guide 00 constant, 05 lg n , 10 n c 0 c 1 , 15 n, 20 n lg n or lg n .... The following table describes integer sorting algorithms and other sorting algorithms that are not comparison ... to Algorithms edition 2 ref align center Bucket sort integer keys Sort 03 &mdash style background ... sorting algorithms that provide better than math mathcal O left n log n right math time complexity ... Postman sort Stooge sort Samplesort Bitonic sorter Summaries of popular sorting algorithms Bubble .... Main Bubble sort Bubble sort is a simple sorting algorithm. The algorithm starts at the beginning of the data ... as arranging the data sequence in a two dimensional array and then sorting the columns of the array ... this task efficiently by using a data structure called a heap data structure heap , a special ... unstable sorts and somewhat complex, but are among the fastest sorting algorithms in practice. Together ... more details


Integer sorting
for integer sorting algorithms typically depend on three parameters the number mvar n of data values ... of data values by numeric keys, each of which is an integer . Algorithms designed for integer ... on the keys allows integer sorting algorithms to be faster than comparison sort ing algorithms in many ... large the integers to be sorted are. The classical integer sorting algorithms of bucket sort , counting ... harvtxt Andersson Nilsson 1998 . ref Much of the subsequent research on integer sorting algorithms ... on radix sorting for data with 128 or more bits per key. ref harvtxt Rahman Raman 1998 . ref Additionally, for large data sets, the near random memory access patterns of many integer sorting algorithms can handicap them compared to comparison sorting algorithms that have been designed ... enough to represent a single key. ref harvtxt Fredman Willard 1993 . ref Integer sorting algorithms .... Different integer sorting algorithms make different assumptions, however, about whether integer ... integer sorting algorithms could be replaced by customized operations that would be more easily ... a selection sort algorithm on any priority queue data structure , that allows one to maintain ... or deletion operation in a priority queue data structure. Thorup s reduction is complicated and assumes ... math log K log n log log n cw for some constant math c 0 . Algorithms for few items Bucket ... for large enough keys, they become slower than comparison sorting algorithms. However, when the key ... needed to implement the data structure. The atomic heap is a B tree in which each tree node is represented ... Fredman Willard 1993 introduced the transdichotomous model of analysis for integer sorting algorithms ... involves using ideas related to signature sorting to partition the data into many small sublists ... An experimental study of word level parallelism in some sorting algorithms pages 193 203 publisher Max ... in space math N volume 17 year 1983 . refend Category Sorting algorithms ... more details

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